A progressive pregnancy is associated with vast physiological and psychological alternations which are essential for a normal fetal growth. However, these alternations have association with several pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes. The present study aims to review the association of the physiological and psychological alternations during pregnancy and birth outcomes. The literature has been done using Google Scholar, PUBMED and Research Gate. Besides, manual searching has also been done. It was observed that the development of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), Preterm birth (PTB), Spontaneous cesarean section (CS), miscarriage, stillbirth, intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), low birth weight (LBW), large-for-gestational age (LGA), small-for-gestational age (SGA), macrosomia, macrosomia and other congenital anomalies were associated with the non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. Hence, early initiatives should be taken by modifying the daily lifestyle to reduce the detrimental effects of the harmful factors on pregnancy and birth outcomes.