Objectives: The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene may play an important role in coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infarction (MI) risk. Recently, controversial results regarding the association of the G-308 A (rs1800629)polymorphism of the TNF-α gene with CHD/MI have been reported. We herein examine a possible association between the G-308 A (rs1800629)polymorphism of the TNF-α gene and CHD/MI in a sample of the Chinese Han population. Materials and Methods: We determined the genotypes of TNF-α G-308 A (rs1800629) in 535 unrelated Chinese patients with CHD, 420 patients with MI, and 1020 coronary artery disease-free controls. Additionally, a meta-analysis of all previous studies on the TNF-α G-308 A polymorphism and the risk of CHD and MI was performed. Results: AA genotypes in the G-308 A (rs1800629)polymorphism of the TNF-α gene did not occur more frequently in CHD/MI patients than in controls; odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.743 (0.325 to 1.423) for CHD and 1.731 (0.442 to 1.526) for MI, after adjusting for conventional risk factors. Further stratification for age, gender, and other cardiovascular risk factors did not alter the prior negative findings. Pooled meta-analysis of 23 studies also found no statistically significant associations between the TNF-α polymorphism and CHD/MI risk in the genetic additive, dominant, and recessive models. Subgroup analyses showed no association between the TNF-α polymorphism and CHD/MI in Asian and Caucasian populations. Conclusion: Our study showed no association between the G-308 A (rs1800629) polymorphism of the TNF-α gene (presence of A allele) and CHD/MI in the Chinese Han population. There was no evidence of a difference in risk effects of rs1800629 between Caucasians and Asians.