E-ISSN 0976-2833 | ISSN 0975-3583
 

Original Research (Original Article) 


Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and its Soluble Receptor-1 as Surrogate Markers for Subjects with High-risk of Cardiovascular Disease

Vipa Boonkitticharoen, Chanika Sritara, Prin Vathesatogkit, Supakajee Saengruang-Orn,Wipa Ratanachaiwong, Piyamitr Sritara.

Abstract
Background: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its soluble receptor-1 (sVEGFR-1) can either act benefi cially
or adversely on cardiovascular health depending on the context. An understanding of VEGF regulation in subclinical
atherosclerosis would help to identify individuals who may need more intensive efforts in risk modifi cation as preventive
measures. Subjects and Methods: The population in this study consisted of subjects without any modifi able risks and
hypercholesterolemic subjects with low or high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. A total of 227 subjects were recruited from
employees of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand and their cardiovascular risk factor history as well as clinical
and laboratory data were collected. Plasma VEGF and sVEGFR-1 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent
assay. Results: Biphasic association between the sVEGFR-1-to-VEGF (R/V) ratio and the VEGF concentration indicated
VEGF upregulation at concentrations above 12.99 pg/mL and VEGF entrapment at a concentration below this level. Rates
of VEGF upregulation in low- and high-risk groups were respectively found to be 2.6-fold (P = 0.01) and 4.6-fold (P = 0.03)
above the zero risk group. The R/V ratio, which is positively correlated to cholesterol level (P < 0.01), blood pressure
and waist circumference (P < 0.1), was found to be associated with CVD risk severity in high-risk subjects (P = 0.028).
At VEGF ≤18.58 pg/mL and R/V ratio >3.4, high-risk subjects compared to low-risk subjects had greater odds of being
observed with severe risk scores (odds ratio = 8.2, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: VEGF upregulation in subjects with CVD
risks is correctively controlled within the physiologic boundary and represents an attempt at vascular repair. Low VEGF
levels and high R/V ratios in high-risk subjects are warning signs with respect to cardiovascular health and may indicate
the need for more aggressive risk factor treatment in order to prevent the occurrence of undesirable cardiovascular events.

Key words: Cardiovascular disease risk factor, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand risk score, hypercholesterolemia, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1-to-vascular endothelial growth factor ratio, vascular endothelial growth factor protective function


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Vipa Boonkitticharoen, Chanika Sritara, Prin Vathesatogkit, Supakajee Saengruang-Orn,Wipa Ratanachaiwong, Piyamitr Sritara. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and its Soluble Receptor-1 as Surrogate Markers for Subjects with High-risk of Cardiovascular Disease. . 2014; 5(2): 35-42. doi:10.5530/jcdr.2014.2.8


Web Style

Vipa Boonkitticharoen, Chanika Sritara, Prin Vathesatogkit, Supakajee Saengruang-Orn,Wipa Ratanachaiwong, Piyamitr Sritara. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and its Soluble Receptor-1 as Surrogate Markers for Subjects with High-risk of Cardiovascular Disease. http://www.jcdronline.org//?mno=93452 [Access: March 25, 2020]. doi:10.5530/jcdr.2014.2.8


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Vipa Boonkitticharoen, Chanika Sritara, Prin Vathesatogkit, Supakajee Saengruang-Orn,Wipa Ratanachaiwong, Piyamitr Sritara. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and its Soluble Receptor-1 as Surrogate Markers for Subjects with High-risk of Cardiovascular Disease. . 2014; 5(2): 35-42. doi:10.5530/jcdr.2014.2.8



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Vipa Boonkitticharoen, Chanika Sritara, Prin Vathesatogkit, Supakajee Saengruang-Orn,Wipa Ratanachaiwong, Piyamitr Sritara. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and its Soluble Receptor-1 as Surrogate Markers for Subjects with High-risk of Cardiovascular Disease. . (2014), [cited March 25, 2020]; 5(2): 35-42. doi:10.5530/jcdr.2014.2.8



Harvard Style

Vipa Boonkitticharoen, Chanika Sritara, Prin Vathesatogkit, Supakajee Saengruang-Orn,Wipa Ratanachaiwong, Piyamitr Sritara (2014) Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and its Soluble Receptor-1 as Surrogate Markers for Subjects with High-risk of Cardiovascular Disease. , 5 (2), 35-42. doi:10.5530/jcdr.2014.2.8



Turabian Style

Vipa Boonkitticharoen, Chanika Sritara, Prin Vathesatogkit, Supakajee Saengruang-Orn,Wipa Ratanachaiwong, Piyamitr Sritara. 2014. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and its Soluble Receptor-1 as Surrogate Markers for Subjects with High-risk of Cardiovascular Disease. Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research, 5 (2), 35-42. doi:10.5530/jcdr.2014.2.8



Chicago Style

Vipa Boonkitticharoen, Chanika Sritara, Prin Vathesatogkit, Supakajee Saengruang-Orn,Wipa Ratanachaiwong, Piyamitr Sritara. "Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and its Soluble Receptor-1 as Surrogate Markers for Subjects with High-risk of Cardiovascular Disease." Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research 5 (2014), 35-42. doi:10.5530/jcdr.2014.2.8



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Vipa Boonkitticharoen, Chanika Sritara, Prin Vathesatogkit, Supakajee Saengruang-Orn,Wipa Ratanachaiwong, Piyamitr Sritara. "Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and its Soluble Receptor-1 as Surrogate Markers for Subjects with High-risk of Cardiovascular Disease." Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research 5.2 (2014), 35-42. Print. doi:10.5530/jcdr.2014.2.8



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Vipa Boonkitticharoen, Chanika Sritara, Prin Vathesatogkit, Supakajee Saengruang-Orn,Wipa Ratanachaiwong, Piyamitr Sritara (2014) Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and its Soluble Receptor-1 as Surrogate Markers for Subjects with High-risk of Cardiovascular Disease. Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research, 5 (2), 35-42. doi:10.5530/jcdr.2014.2.8





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